How to properly nail three tab shingles is so simple but most people, even roofers do it wrong.  The most important thing to do is to remember that water runs down hill. 

This may seem overly simplistic but you would be surprised at how few people think of that when roofing.
What do first? Well get the right shingle and nail size for your job.
Make sure that the nails are long enough but not too long. 
The placement of the nails is critical.                                                                                                 
If done right each shingle will have 4 nails along the glue strip above the spaces between the tabs and near the ends along that glue strip.
When the next shingle is set above that one, then the nails through it will also catch the top of the first shingle making 8 nails total into each full shingle.
(A note of warning, take the cellophane strip off the back of each shingle. Those are there to prevent sticking in the stack. On the roof, you want all the sticking power you can get.)
Make sure that the nails go in straight and flat not at any angle at all.
Placed at an angle is one reason why the shingle can get blown off. 
It is also wise not to use staples as they have a very minimal capacity to hold the shingles on.
A nail gun is fine if the nails are put in straight and flat with it.
Do it this way and save yourself lots of money and headache latter on.

Then when a tab blows off and needs to be replaced what do you do?

If you want a new shingle there and not just the tab glued back on, then loosen the tabs above the missing one, lift them up an pry the nails out, take the top of the damaged shingle out from under them.
Then insert just a full tab (top included or a whole single if three tabs are missing), nail it in and re-nail the shingles above and glue the tabs back down with Asphalt roof cement.
This will make for a good repair job and will be easier to repair another time.

I don’t want to see another roof like the one I worked on today that was built wrong and then maintained wrong.
It will make for fewer repairs and less expensive ones too.
Then I’ll be happy and your wallet will be too.
I’ve been in the building trades for a long while and have seen that most repairs problems arise from improper installation more than from age.                                                                                You can see my Tips videos from a link at:
Jay Beacham